Tuesday, 20 September 2011

PTU Syllabus M.Sc. (Biotechnology) (MSCBT) 2014

PTU Syllabus 2014
PTU offers number of courses in Distance Education mode. Courses in Biotechnology are getting very popular these days as number of Job opportunities are available for Biotech Professionals. PTU is offering M.Sc Biotechnology in Distance Education mode. You will find below the complete Syllabus for PTU M.Sc. (Biotechnology) (MSCBT) in Distance Education Mode.

PTU Syllabus M.Sc. (Biotechnology) (MSCBT)
MSCBT-101: Introductory Biology
1. Nature and Scope of Biology: Basis and origin of life, Living and non – living common
features of life process. Energy Transformation.
2. Kingdoms of life, or Biological Classification, species and population, Biotic community,
3. Cell as a unit of life : Prokaryotic and Eukaryotics cell, Plant and animal cell, cell structure,
membrane organization and cell organelles. Cell function, cell division mitosis and meiosis, cell
cycle .
4. Introduction to Bio Molecules:
Structure and properties of mono, oliga and poly Saccharides
Structure and properties of fatty acids, glycerolipids, phospholipids, glycolipids, steroids.
Structures and Properties of amino acids peptides and protein.
Structure and properties of purines, Pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleotides,
polynucleotides, Ribonucleic acids and Deoxyribonucleic acids, nucleoprotein
5. Metabolism: Introduction of Respiration and Photosynthesis.
MSCBT-102: Molecular Biology – I
Unit I:-Cell:- Cell organelles: Structure function, structure of mitochondria and organization of
respiratory chain, organization of cytoskeleton and nucleic.
Discovery of DNA as the genetic material, Structure of DNA (A,B&Z forms ), concept & definition of the
genome, C-value paradox, denaturation & renaturation of DNA, repetitive & non-repetitive DNA,
reassociation kinetics. Cot curve, Rot curve, chemical & kinetic complexitv of DNA, supercoiling in
organization of bacterial genome, chromosome structure in eukaryotes, nucleosome model, chromatin
structure, satellite DNA, polytene chromosomes, lampbrush chromosomes, B chromosomes-Evolution
of the gene concept, definition of gene, interrupted genes, multigene families & pseudogenes,
overlapping genes, nested genes, open reading frames.
Unit-IV:-DNA REPLICATION:- General features of DNA replication in prokaryotes & eukaryotes,
enzymology of DNA replication, regulation of DNA replication
Unit-V:- GENE MUTATION, REPAIR & RECOMBINATION:-Definition & types of mutation, mutagenic
agents & their mode of action, reversion & suppression of mutation.
DNA repair mechanisms : light dependent repair, excision repair, mis-match repair Post-replication
repair, sos response.
DNA recombination mechanisms : holiiday model, Rec A, Rec BCD, gene conversion
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MSCBT-103: Bioenergetics & Metabolism
Unit I
Introduction to Biochemistry, define Carbohydrate, nomenclature, classification, structure, chemistry and
Biological functions of carbohydrate.
Carbohydrate metabolism : Basic concept, glycolysis, kreb cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and
Polysaccarides : Bacterial cell wall, peptidoglycans and glycolipid.
Unit II
Lipid : Define Lipid, nomenclature, classification structure, chemistry and properties.
Lipids with specific biological function. Lipoproteins and biological membrane, micelles and liposomes.
Lipid metabolism : Biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acid.
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes.
Unit III
Amino acid : Structure, classification, properties and function.
Methods for isolation and characterisation of protein. Chemical Synthesis of peptides; study of specific
protein like haemoglobin, myoglobin and plasma protein.
Protein : Classification and properties.
Fluorimetric method for determination of N-terminal amino acid.
Unit IV
Nucleic acid : Structure, chemistry and properties of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides & nucleotides,
Biosynthesis and degradation of purines and Pyrimidines.
Enzyme : Basic concept.
Vitamins and their deficiency.
Unit V
First and second laws of thermodynamics & concept of free energy.
High energy phospho Compounds, ATP cycle, structural basis of free energy during hydrolysis of ATP.
Hormones : Hormones receptors and intracellular messengers, Adenylate cyclase, Protein kinase and
Porphyrins : Classification and Structure.
MSCBT-104: Microbiology
General characteristics & classification of bacteria according to Bergey's manual of systematic
Nutritional requirements & physical conditions necessary for cultivation of bacteria, properties of
bacteriological media.
Unit II:- HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY:- Milestone in Microbiology- Recent
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development and future trends.
Anatomy of Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes-Morphology-ultrastructure of Bacteria, Fungi, Algae,
Protozoa and Viruses.
Classification of bacteria on the basis of their nutritional requirements, transport of substances
across membranes.
Procedure and principle involved in gram's staining, acid fast staining, flagella staining, endospore
Unit IV:- Microbial growth & nutrition :- Definition of growth, mathematical expression of growth,
measurement of growth field; synchronous growth, continuous culture, effect of environmental factor
on growth.
Unit V:- Microbial Ecology:- Rhizosphere, phylloplane & role of microorganism is productivity of
ecosystem. Interaction between microorganism, and with plants and animals. Biogeochemical cycle.
Microbes & bio-deterioration.
MSCBT-105: Biophysical Chemistry & Instrumentation
Unit I
Electronic theory of valency dipole moment. Electron displacement, electronic effect, resonance.
The hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interactions. Atomic theory and molecular orbital. Hybridization.
Free radicals in biological systems, antioxidants.
Isomerism : Structural and steroisomerism optical activity, meso compounds. Specific rotation, chirality,
chiral, enantiomers, conformation and configuration. Conformational analysis of monosacharides, boat
and chair forms, eclipsed. Mutarotion, glycosides epimers.
Unit II
Centrifugation : Principle, types, analytical and prepared centrifugation, differential density, gradient
centrifugation, sedimentation and coefficient centrifuge and its application.
Electrophoresis : Principles, types and application (paper, starch, gel polyacrylamide and agar
Chromatography : Principle type and application, (Paper, thin layer, gas ion exchange and molecular
Affinity chromatography, HPLC, FPLC.
Unit III
Photometry : Basic Principle of UV-Vis spectrophotometry and colorimetry.
Fluorimetry : Principle, instrument and application.
Flame techniques, atomic absorbtion spectroscopy.
Isoelectric focusing and Isotachophoresis.
Unit IV
Microscopy : Light, phase contrast, interference and electron microscopy.
X-ray crystallography.
Radioactivity : Radioisotopes, half life, units. Geiger Mueller counter.
Scintillation ; Liquid, Crystal and gamma counter.
Unit V
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ESR : Principle, instrumentation and its application.
NMR : Principle, instrumentation and its application.
ORD and CD : Principle, instrumentation and its application.
Polarimetry : Principle, instrumentation and its application.
Practical course of Semester I
Verification of Beer's law.
Determination of absorbtion maxima.
Electrophoresis of Proteins - native and under denaturing conditions.
Amino acid and carbohydrate separations by paper and thin layer chromatography.
Separation of blood cells by density gradient centrifugation.
Chromatographic method for seperation of macromolecules.
Separation of subcellular organelles by differential centrifugation.
Electrophoresis of DNA - linear, circular and super coiled.
MSCBT-106: Communication & Soft Skills
Essentials of Grammar:
Parts of Speech
Vocabulary Building
Office Management:
Types of Correspondence
Receipt and Dispatch of Mail
Filing Systems
Classification of Mail.
Role & Function of Correspondence
Managing Computer
Letter & Resume Writing:
Types of Letters-Formal / Informal
Importance and Function
Drafting the Applications
Elements of Structure
Preparing the Resume
Do’s & Don’ts of Resume
Helpful Hints
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Presentation Skills:
Importance of Presentation Skills
Capturing Data
Voice & Picture Integration
Guidelines to make Presentation Interesting
Body Language
Voice Modulation
Audience Awareness
Presentation Plan
Visual Aids
Forms of Layout
Styles of Presentation.
Interview Preparation:
Types of Interview
Preparing for the Interviews
Attending the Interview
Interview Process
Employers Expectations
General Etiquette
Dressing Sense
Postures & Gestures
Group Discussion & Presentation:
Helpful Expressions
(Note: Every student shall be given 15 minutes. of presentation time & 45 minutes of discussion
on his/ her presentation.)
The student will be evaluated on the basis of :
􀂄 his / her presentation style
􀂄 Feedback of Faculty & Students
􀂄 General Etiquette
􀂄 Proficiency in Letter Drafting / Interview Preparation
􀂄 The paper is internal and at least 3 tests will be taken. Best 2 of 3 shall account for
final grades (70% Test & 30% Presentation)
MSCBT-107: Practical
Introductory Biology : 15 Marks
Molecular Biology – I : 15 Marks
Bioenergetics & Metabolism : 15 Marks
Microbiology : 15 Marks
Biophysical Chemistry & Instrumentation : 15 Marks
Internal Assessment : 25 Marks
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Unit I
(i) Enzyme: Historical aspects, nomenclature and classification.
(ii) General properties of enzymes and the factors that affect their activity and the
associated changes.
(iii)Extraction assay and purification of enzymes.
(iv)Sub-cellular localization and organization of enzymes
Unit II
(i) Enzyme kinetics (steady state), determination of Km value and studying, kinetics
using, Lineweaver-Burke plot, Eadie Hofstee plot "and: IHans-Woolf equations.
(ii) Enzyme inhibitors-Presteady state kinetics-fast kinetics to elucidate the intermediate and rate
limiting steps (flow and relaxation techniques)Complex kinetics and analysis.
(iii) Allosteric enzyme.
(iv) Rapid reaction techniques.
Unit III
(i) Enzyme specifity- Evidences for enzyme substrate complex Nucleophilic and electrophilic attack -
Role of metal ions in enzyme catalysis.
(ii) Mechanism of enzyme action - (lysozyme, chymotrypsin), DNA polymerase, .Rnase etc.
zymogens and enzyme actiyators, active site determination.
(iii) Regulations of enzymes
(iv) Allosteric interactions and product inhibition.
Unit IV
(i) Coenzyrnes
(ii) Isoenzymes & metalloenzymes .
(iii) Membrance bound enzymes-their extraction assay.
(iv)Lipid-protein interaction and the effect of fluidity on enzyme activity.
Unit V
(i)Immobilisation ; Principle, kinetics of immobilised systems.
(ii)Enzyme immobilisation : Principle, method, activity and application.
(iii.) Effect of immobilization on : activity, kinetics parameters and stability
(iv)Application of immobilized enzyme.
Q1. Study of transduction, transformation, conjugation in E.coli.
Q2. Study of mutation is E.coli.
Q3. Assay of Enzyme activity.
Q4. Kinetic studies on enzyme.
Q5. Alkaline phorphatase estimation.
Q6. Elisa test
Q7. Immobilization of Enzymes.
Q8. Urease estimation by colorimetric method.
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Overview of Bio-Informatics- Database types, sequence database-nucleotide and protein sequence
database, primary and secondary database, Gene Bank, Structure database-protein Data Bank (PDB),
Visualization of structural information, Genomics and the genome. Project sequencing and sequence
assembling using computers.
Discovery & definition of transposons, simple transposons ( IS elements ), composite transposons (Tn3,
Tn5, Tn9, TnlO ), Ac/Ds elements in maize, P elements in drosophila, Retxotransposons, mechanisms of
Unit II:- Gene Expression:- Structure, classes & function of RNA. RNA transcription and
processing in Eukaryotes and prokaryotes genetic code and protein synthesis Transcription and
translational controls.
Unit III:- Regulation of Gene Expression- The operon concept regulatory gene, promoter gene, operator
gene and structural gene, role of CAMP and CRP in gene expression, catabotite repression, induces,
repressor corepressor. Brief account of Eukaryotic gene expression (Britson & Davidson model). Protein
localization: synthesis of secretary and membrane protein.
Unit IV:- Gene as unit of Mutation & Recombination :-
Physical and Chemical Basis of Mutation: Mechanism of mutagenesis, Mutation of DNA & protein levels.
Recombination is Bacteria - Transformation, transduction and conjugation, mechanism of gene transfer
and application.
Unit V:- Oncogenes and their properties ; classification, characteristics and significance in development,
Differentiation and Carcinogens . An overview of Apoptosis its phases and significance, Apoptosis in
pathogenesis & therapeutic implication.
Ql. Isolation of genomic DNA from bacterial cells.
Q2. Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacterial cells.
Q3. Isolation of genomic DNA from plant cells.
Q4. Transformation ofCaCl2
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Unit I
Core techniques in gene manipulation ; Cloning strategies ; Construction of-gene libraries; Probe
construction; recombinant selection and screening -DNA sequencing, RFLP, DNA finger printing;
Expression analysis; sequencing mutagenesis Engineering genes; Polymerase chain reaction;
Ligase chain reaction.
Unit II
Expression systems and their applications; Production of protein from
cloned genes; gene cloning in research, medicine and agriculture; Intellectual
Property Rights (1PR) and patents, biosafety, containment facilities for
Genetic Engineering experiments. Regulations on field experiments and
release of GMO's (Genetically Modified Organisms), labelling of GM
(Genetically Modified) Foods. '
Unit III
E.Coli vectors - Plasmid biology - pBR 322 and its derivatives - gene markers. Cloning vectors for gramnegative
bacteria & phage - filamentous phages - Cosmid - phasmid. Cloning in Gram - Positive bacteria
Bacillus subtilis - transformation techniques.
Unit IV
Gene expression in eukaryotes - Cloning in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetics - life cycle - types
of vectors - gene expression system. Eukaryotic Vectors - SV40 - molecular genetics - markers
- expression system. Cloning and gene expression in Streptomyces.
Specialised cloning vectors for cDNA - synthesis of specific RNA in vitro- selection of vectors for copy
number - cloning promoters and Terminators.
Unit V
Plant cloning vectors - Agrobacterium turnefaciens - Ti piasmids -molecular genetics and gene
expression. Animal cell cloning; vectors - Baculoviruses - mammalian expression, vectors. -
retroviral vectors
Expression vectors - vectors for fusion protein - promoters - translation
proteases - gene fusion - secretion - modification and protein refolding -inducible - constitutive
expression cassettes.
Q1. Study of transduction, transformation, conjugation in E.coli.
Q2. Study of mutation is E.coli.
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Enzymology & Enzyme Technology - 20 Marks
Bioinformatics - 15 Marks
Molecular Biology – II - 20 Marks
Genetic Engineering - 20 Marks
Internal Assessment - 25 Marks
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MSCBT-301: Immunology
Unit I
Immune response : Type of Immunity, Antigens and haptens.
Anatomy of lymphoid organs; primary and secondary lymphoid organs.
Immunoglobulin Structure, function and synthesis, memory cells lymphocyte differentiation.
Cell of the immune system : Mononuclear cells and granulocytes, Lymphocytes and their subsets.
Unit II
Biology of complement systems : structure and function of MHC class I & II molecules.
Antigen recognition and presentation, cell mediated immune responses.
Hypersensitivity reactions; Immune suppression and Immune Tolerance immune disorders,
Role of complement system in immune responses.
Unit III
Antigen - Isolation, purification and characterization of various antigens and haptens from pathogens
and other biological molecules by biophysical and chemical and affinity separation methods.
Production of antibodies, purification of antibodies, Quantitation of immunoglobulin by RID, EID and
nephlometry. Hybridoma and monoclonal antibody production.
Immuno-diagnosis and Applications of monoclonal antibodies in biomedical research; human
monoclonal antibodies, Catalytic antibodies; complement fixation test; assessment of immune complex
in tissues.
Unit IV
Purification of mononuclear from peripheral blood; isolation and characterization of T cell subsets; B
cells and macrophages.
Fluroescent Activated cell sorter (FACS); Mitogen and Antigen induced Lymphoproliferation assay. Cell
mediated Lympholysis; Mixed Lymphocyte reaction.
Assessment of delayed hypersensitivity reactions; Macrophage cultures.
Assay for Macrophage activation; Isolation of dendritic cells; In situ and in vivo characterization of cells
from tissues; Generation of T cell HLA typing.
Unit V
Cytokines : Structure and functions, Cytokine receptors, Biology and assay of cytokiness. Cytotoxic
Tcells and thir mechanism of action, NK cells and mechanism of target cell destruction. Vaccine
technology including DNA vaccines; identification of T & B epitopes for vaccine developments,
Immunotechnology and infectious diseases. Immunoscreening of recombinant library.
Ql. Blood film preperation and identification of cells.
Q2.Seperation of serum proteins by electrophoresis.
Q3.Study of antigen and antibody interaction by double diffusion method.
Q4. Study of antigen and antibody interaction by immuno-electrophoresis.
Q5. Study of antigen and antibody interaction by counter-current immuno-electrophoresis.
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MSCBT-302: Plant Biotechnology
Plant genome organisation, structure of representative plant genes and gene families in plants -
Organisation of chloroplast genome, nuclear encoded and chloroplast encoded genes for
chloroplast proteins, targeting of oroteins to chloroplast - Organisation of mitochondria!
genome - encoded genes for mitochondrial proteins - RNA editing for plant mitochondria
-cytoplasmic male sterility - Seed storage proteins - maize transposabie elements, their
organisation and function, transposabie elements in transgenic plants - Regulation of
gene expression in plant development -Plant hormones and phytochrome.
Unit II
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes by Rhizobia - Nitrogen fixation in Cyanophyta. the biochemistry,
molecular biology and gene rearrangement. Agrobacterium and crown gall tumors - Mechanism of TDNA
transfer to plants, Ti plasmid vectors and its utility - Classification and molecular biology of plant
viruses - Molecular biology of -plant stress response. Transgenic plants and applications vaccine and
other biological developments.
Unit III
Genetic engineering in plants, selectable' markets, reporter genes and promoter used in plants by
physical means - Genetic engineering of plants for construction of genome libraries and CDNA libraries,
Molecular breeding.
Preparation of fissure culture medium for plants
Preparation of single cell suspension from spleen or thymus & plants.
Protoplast fusion.
Cell counting & cell viability .
Callus Propagation, organogensis, transfer of plant to soil.
MSCBT-303: Environmental Biotechnology
Environment: basic concepts and issues ; environmental pollution : types and methods for the
measurement; methodology of environmental management- problem solving approach, its limitations;
air pollution and its control through biotechnology, air sampling techniques; biodiversity : conservation
and management.
Unit - II
Water pollution and its control: water as a scarce natural resource, need for water management,
sources and measurement of water pollution, waste water treatment-physical, chemical and biological
treatment processes; algal blooms and human health.
Microbiology of waste water treatments : aerobic process- activated sludge, oxidation switches,
trickling filter, towers, rotating discs, rotating drums, oxidation ponds; anaerobic processes- anaerobic
digestion, anaerobic filters, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors;
treatment schemes for waste waters of dairy, distillery, tannery industries; biotechnological
applications of microbes from extreme environment.
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Microbial degradation of xenobiotics in the environment - ecological considerations, decay behaviour &
degradative plasmids, hydrocarbons, substituted hydrocarbons, oil pollution, surfactants,
pesticides; bioaccumulation of metals and radio-nuclerds and detoxification ; bioremediation.
Biological N2 fixation, H2 production, biofertilizers and biopesticides; solid wastes: sources and
management (composting, wormiculture and methane production). Single cell protein (Spin/Una,
yeast, mushroom); global environmental problems- ozone depletion, UV-B, green house effect and acid
rain, their impact and. biotechnological approaches for
Isolation of industrially important microorganism for microbial processes.
Determination of thermal death point (TDP) and thermal death time (TDT) of microorganism for design of
a sterilizer.
Comparative study of Ethanol production using different substrate .
MSCBT-304: Bioprocess Engineering & Technology
Introduction to bioprocess engineering, bioreactors, isolation, preservation and maintenance of industrial
microorganisms; kinetic of microbial growth and death; media for industrial fermentation, air and media
Unit - II
Types of fermentation processes, analysis of batch, fed-batch and continuous bio-reactides, stability of
microbial reactors, analysis of mixed microbial populations, specialized bioreactors (pulsed, fluidized,
photobioreactors etc.); measurement and control of bioprocess parameters.
Unit - III
Downstream processing: introduction, removal of microbial cells and solid matter, foam reparation,
precipitation/filtration, centrifugation, cell disruptions, liquid-liquid extraction, chromatography; membrane
process, drying and crystallization; effluent treatment- D.O.C. and C.O.D. treatment and disposal of
effluents; whole cell immobilization and their industrial applications.
Unit - IV
Industrial production of chemicals: alcohol (ethanol), acids (citric acetic and gluconic) solvents, (glycerol
acetone butenol) , antibiotics (penicillin), amino acids (lysine), single cell-protein.
Unit - V
Use of Microbes in mineral beneficiation and oil recovery; Introduction to food technology: Elementary
idea of canning and packing, sterilization and pasteurization of food products, technology of typical food /
food products( Bread, Cheese, Idli ), food Preservation.
Isolation of antibiotic producing microorganism from soil.
Use of alginate for cell immobilization.
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Detection of coli—for determination of purity of potable w—.
Determination of COD/BOD for a sewage sample.
Determination of the efficiency of removal of air. Pollutant by using air samples.
Test for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon by bacteria.
MSCBT-305: Practical
Immunology : 20 Marks
Plant Bio-Technology : 15 Marks
Environmental Biotechnology : 20 Marks
Bioprocess Engineering & Technology : 20 Marks
Internal Assessment : 25 Marks
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MSCBT-401: Biostatistics
Unit I:- Introduction:- definition, scope and limitation of biostatistics; concept of variables in biological
systems; collection, classification, tabulation, graphical diagrammatic representation of data, Measures
of central tendency (arithmetic, harmonic & geometric), median and mode; confidence limit of
population mean.
Unit II:- Measure of dispersion: range, standard deviation variance, coefficient of variation; definitionand
basic properties of probability, normal and binomial distribution function, test of significance,
hypothesis, error, level of significance; t-statistics: test that a population mean equals a specified
value, paired 't' test.
Unit III:- F-statistics: one way analysis of variance (sample size equal and unequal), chi-square
statistics, test of goodness of fit, test of independence of factor; co-relation and its coefficient/ linear
regression and its coefficient regression equation & its diagram.
Unit IV:- Introduction to data base concept, introduction to internet and its application, introduction to
MS office software, covering word processing, spreadsheets, introduction to hardware graphics.
Unit V:- Computer oriented statistical techniques by using Excel; frequency table of single discrete
variable, computation of mean, variance and standard deviation;
MSCBT-402: Animal Biotechnology
Unit - I
Basic principles of Biotechnology as applicable to animal Science -
Artificial Insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, In-vitro fertilization - Embryo
Transfer Technology - Transgenic Animals.
Unit - II
Animal Cell culture - Applications
in Animal biotechnology. Bio hazard and Biosecurity in Animal Biotechnology-
Ethical aspects in Animal Biotechnology.
Unit - III
Biofueling and Control technology. Bioremediation. Use transgenic technology to study fish growth
and development
Unit IV
Genetic engineering and ploidy manipulation to enhance grow reproduction and
development of disease resistance in aquaculture species. Cryobiology in Marine germplasm
preservation Pharmaceuticals from marine organisms.
MSCBT-403: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Unit I
Production recombinant pharmaceuticals :
Recombinant insulin
Human Growth factor synthesis
Recombinant factor VIII
Unit II
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Synthesis of :
Recombinant vaccine
Recombine Protein
Live recombinant vaccine
Unit III
Identification of genes responsible for human disease.
Breast cancer
Autosomal dominant and recessive disorders.
X-linked disorders.
Unit IV
Gene therapy of somatic cell.
Genetic Manipulation of Grem cell.
Unit V
Prospects and
Ethics of gene therapy
MSCBT-404: Research Methodology
Introduction to Research: Definition, Scope, Limitations, and Types.
Objectives of Research
Research Process
Research Designs
Data Collection: Secondary Data, Primary Data, and Methods of Collection.
Scaling Techniques: Concept, Types, Rating scales & Ranking Scales
Scale Construction Techniques, Multi Dimensional Scaling.
Sampling Designs: Concepts, Types and Techniques
Sample Size Decision
Theory of Estimation and Testing of Hypothesis
Small & Large Sample Tests, Tests of Significance based on t, F , Z test and Chi-Square Test.
Designing Questionnaire.
Tabulation, Coding, Editing.
Interpretation and Report Writing.
MSCBT-405: Practical / Training
Biostatistics : 20 Marks
Animal Biotechnology : 20 Marks
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology : 15 Marks
Research Methodology : 20 Marks
Internal Assessment: 25 Marks
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